A cooling tower is a structure specially built to reject excessive and waste heat into the atmosphere. Cooling towers are heat exchangers where air and water are brought into direct contact with each other so as to expel the excessive heat out. As this action takes place in the best cooling tower, a small amount of water gets evaporated; this helps in reducing the amount of heat present in the water.
This heat rejection device, cooling tower rejects the waste heat present in the water to the atmosphere by cooling a water stream at a lower pressure. Cooling tower can either use the process of evaporation of water to remove heat from water or the process used in closed circuit dry cooling tower that are based on cooling of air to lower the temperature.
The SQUARE Series comes with an option for multiple cells in the same cooling tower unlike ROUND series wherein separate towers are given for higher loads. Cell orientation can be in line or back to back ( cluster) to suit site space restrictions. SQUARE Series Towers are square shaped with turbulator sprayers, which enhance water distribution at lower heads without clogging of nozzles. Fills are generally cross fluted film type, which maximise air/water interaction and heat exchange. Drift eliminators are cellular type and provide higher drift elimination at lower pressure drops. A separate metallic structure is provided to ensure sturdiness of design without loading FRP Shell, thereby providing a longer operating product life cycle. These Towers are provided with unique FRP Modular casing panels. Fans are directly driven by a Motor. These Towers can cater to 500 TR or 450 M3/hr in a single cell and can be scaled up for higher capacities with multiple cells.
Heat Rejection Process in Cooling Tower
The most common type of heat rejection process used in the best cooling tower is the ‘evaporative technique’ that allows a small amount of water to evaporate after cooling the water stream. This heat evaporated from the water stream is transferred to the air stream present in cooling tower that raises the temperature of the air and its relative humidity by 100%, and then this air is finally discharged to the atmosphere. Cooling tower are an evaporative heat rejection device that are commonly used to lower the water temperatures better than the ones achieved with air cooling or dry heat rejection devices such as the radiator of the car. Therefore the technique of using the best cooling tower is cost-effective and energy efficient for cooling. The cooling potential of a cooling tower is immense and cannot be ignored.
Cooling towers have two types of rejection equipment: direct (open circuit) and indirect (closed circuit). The most common, popular and best cooling tower is an open direct contact rejection device but there is another one that is the closed circuit cooling tower which too is a cooling tower.
An open circuit(direct) cooling tower is an enclosed structure that has external means to distribute the warm water supplied to it over a packing like the labyrinth or fill. This fill provides an expanded air-water interface for heating of the air as well as the evaporation process. The water is cooled as it falls down by the force of gravity while being in direct contact of the air that passes over it. This cooled water is later collected in a water basin that is exactly below the fill from there it is pumped back through the process to absorb more heat and this heat is finally released into the air.
The closed circuit (indirect) cooling tower functions without any direct contact of the air and the fluid being cooled. Unlike the open circuit cooling towers, the indirect cooling tower has two different fluid circuits. One circuit is external where the water is re-circulated on the outside of the second circuit that is composed of tube bundles which are further connected to the hot fluid that being cooled and later returns in a closed circuit. Air is finally drawn out through the re-circulating water that is outside the hot tubes, helping cooling water vapors to evaporate to the opening of the cooling tower.
Common Applications of Cooling Towers
The cooling tower can be installed for various applications, but following are the most common applications of the best cooling towers
- Cooled water for air-conditioning
- Electric power generation
- Cooled water for the circulating water in:
- Oil Refineries
- Chemical Plants
- Petrochemical Plants
- Thermal Power Stations