A pump is a device that moves fluids (liquids or gases), or sometimes slurries, by mechanical action. Pumps can be classified into three major groups according to the method they use to move the fluid: direct lift, displacement, and gravity pumps.Pumps operate by some mechanism (typically reciprocating or rotary), and consume energy to perform mechanical work moving the fluid. Pumps operate via many energy sources, including manual operation, electricity, engines, or wind power, come in many sizes, from microscopic for use in medical applications to large industrial pumps.Mechanical pumps serve in a wide range of applications such as pumping water from wells, aquarium filtering, pond filtering and aeration, in the car industry for water-cooling and fuel injection, in the energy industry for pumping oil and natural gas or for operating cooling towers and other components of heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems.
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A certain amount of pressure is required to get the fluid to flow into the pump before additional pressure or velocity can be added. If the inlet pressure is too small, cavitation (the formation of a vacuous space in the pump, which is normally occupied by liquid) will occur. Vaporization of liquid in the suction line is a common cause of cavitation. Vapour bubbles carried into the pump with the liquid collapse when they enter a region of higher pressure, resulting in excessive noise, vibration, corrosion, and erosion.
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